limestone mud geology


While still in the Upper Keys, take a look at the ''lakes'', mud banks and islands of Florida Bay: a famous laboratory for discovering how fine-grained limestone forms. The sticky H2S-rich mud lining the shallow (less than 4m deep) bay is composed primarily of the faecal pellets of marine organisms, mainly worms.

Introduction to Carbonate Facies, Depositional ...

Grainstone: Mud-free carbonate rocks, which are grain supported (Dunham, 1962). They generally are deposited in moderate- to high-energy environments, but their hydraulic significance can vary. Dunham (1962) provided several suggestions for their origin: (1) they may be produced in high-energy, grain-productive environments where mud cannot ...

Sandstone? Shale? Formation Evaluations: Well logs

Mud Parameters Mud Resistivity Data Resistivity Imaging Logs 32 FMI = Formation Micro Imaging Resolution vs. Investigation 33 Sonic Logs Measures of interval travel time in formation ∆t ( sec/ft) = 1/V • ∆t is related to Density which depends on: Lithology, Porosity, and Fluid Content • Used to generate Synthetic Seismic traces

Carbonates & Other Rocks

Carbonate Rocks. The carbonate rocks make up 10 to 15% of sedimentary rocks. They largely consist of two types of rocks. Limestones which are composed mostly of calcite (CaCO 3) or high Mg calcite [(Ca,Mg)CO 3], and . Dolostones which are composed mostly of dolomite [CaMg(CO 3) 2]. Because carbonate minerals in general are soluble in slightly acidic waters, they often have high porosity and ...

Carbonate Classification

Most limestones are classified by Folk allochemical Rocks if they contain over l0% allochems (transported carbonate grains). Based on the percentage of interstitial material, the Rocks may be further subdivided into two groups: sparry allochemical limestones (containing a sparry calcite cement of clear coarsely crystalline mosaic calcite crystals) and microcrystalline allochemical limestone ...

Dolomite: A sedimentary rock known as dolostone ...

Dolomite, also known as "dolostone" and "dolomite rock," is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of the mineral dolomite, CaMg (CO 3) 2. Dolomite is found in sedimentary basins worldwide. It is thought to form by the postdepositional alteration of lime mud and limestone by magnesium-rich groundwater. Dolomite and limestone are very similar rocks.


provinces, which have distinctive rocks and landforms. The Valley and RidgeProvince is underlain by faulted and folded sedimentary layers of sandstone, shale, and limestone that range in age from Cambrian to Devonian (570 to 345 Ma [millions of years ago]). These rocks originated as sand, mud, and lime sediment deposited in former seas

USGS Professional Paper 1151-H: The Geology of Kentucky ...

Ashlock Formation, Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, and Fairview Formation (Oaf).-The Calloway Creek Limestone is composed of limestone, shale, and minor siltstone. It is mostly fossiliferous limestone which occurs in even and nodular beds that are commonly 1 to 4 in thick.


Clast shape, or the degree of rounding of clasts, is important in differentiating some sedimentary rocks. Clasts vary in shape from rounded to angular, depending on the distance they have been transported and / or the environment of deposition, e.g. rounded clasts are generally the product of long transportation distances and / or deposition in high energy environments (beaches, rivers).


Limestone is a very common sedimentary rock consisting of calcium carbonate (more than 50%). It is the most common non-siliciclastic (sandstone and shale are common siliciclastic rocks) sedimentary rock.Limestones are rocks that are composed of mostly calcium carbonate (minerals calcite or aragonite). Carbonate rocks where the dominant carbonate is dolomite (calcium magnesium …

Geology | Taughannock Falls State Park

Shale Mud with particles of silt and clay formed this soft, easily eroded rock. It is easily fractured by physical weathering and flakes easily. Limestone Fine sediment and marine life remains formed this hard rock. Taughannock''s stream bed is limestone. 300-275 Million Years Ago

Limestone: Rock Uses, Formation, Composition, Pictures

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcite, a calcium carbonate mineral with a chemical composition of CaCO 3. It usually forms in clear, calm, warm, shallow marine waters. Limestone is usually a biological sedimentary rock, forming from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal, fecal, and other organic debris.

Field Guide | Middle Tennessee State University

 · This led to the formation of identifiable strata: very fine grained, massively bedded limestone mud during the quiet periods; thinly bedded fine grained limestone alternating with partings of shale during the active periods. The formations of the Stones River Group are shown below.

Basics--Table of Depositional Environments

 · cross-beds, ripple marks, mud cracks: plant fossils: lake: silt, shale, freshwater limestone : graded beds, thin beds, varves, ripple marks, mud cracks: lake dwelling organisms: TRANSITIONAL where land meets ocean. Environment Name Common Sedimentary Rock Types Common Sedimentary Structures Common Fossils; delta: marine and nonmarine mudstone ...

Geology of Ohio

Limestone and shale form the surface rocks in southwestern Ohio, with dolomite in the subsurface. Economic Products. Crushed stone (limestone). Oil and gas (limestone, shale); in 1884, the first giant U.S. oil field was discovered in Ordovician rocks in northwestern Ohio. Limestone in the Cincinnati area formerly was a source of building stone.


Limestone There are many different types of limestone formed through a variety of processes. Some limestones form from the cementation of sand and / or mud by calcite ( clastic limestone), and these often have the appearance of sandstone or mudstone.

Mudstone/Shale vs. Limestone

Most of the outcrop is mudstone. The bed that sticks out: it is a thin limestone. If you are really interested in studying some shales, you are faced with digging or hiring a drilling rig to make a core. This mudstone contains irregular hard blobs called nodules or concretions. When broken open, they reveal fine …

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

These rocks are classified on the proportions of vitric, crystal (mineral), or lithic material they contain, for example, "vitric lithic ash," or "crystal vitric tuff." If the mineralogy of the crystal or lithic fragments can be determined, the name of the appropriate volcanic rock can be …

Limestone | Types, Properties, Composition, Formation, Uses

Limestone rocks beside Buttertubs; ... Some limestones form from the cementation of sand and / or mud by way of calcite ( clastic limestone), and these often have the appearance of sandstone or mudstone. As calcite is the precept mineral thing of limestone, it will fizz in dilute hydrochloric acid.

Geological Society

Limestone is made up of calcium carbonate (fizzes with acid). This may be shell fragments, mud, or small, round ooliths that form in tropical lagoons. Chalk is a soft white limestone made from the microscopic skeletons of marine plankton.

Micrite limestone

 · Micrite = lime mud; CaCO 3, the mineral calcite. Micrite is the equivalent of clay (rock = shale) in clastics. Originally deposited as microscopic aragonite needles, but now converted to calcite and then calcite cemented to form the rock. See Origin of …


 · Primarily consisting of limestone, the bedrock geology of Everglades National Park has responded over time to the ongoing processes of weathering, erosion, compaction of organic sediments, unique hydrologic conditions, and episodes of sea-level rise and fall to produce the landscapes we see today. ... Marl also is called calcitic mud and it is ...

The mineralogy of carbonates; lime mud

A post in the How to… series on carbonate mineralogy – carbonate mud. Micrite – a sensible contraction of microcrystalline calcite. Lime muds are important components of most shallow carbonate-forming environments: platforms, platform margins and slopes, back-reef and fore-reef settings, and lagoons.

Hualapai Limestone Member of the Muddy Creek Formation ...

HUALAPAI LIMESTONE MEMBER OF THE MUDDY CREEK FORMATION sum of the Muddy Creek Formation. Above the gyp­ sum is a 75-m sequence of well-bedded marl, limy clay- stone, and limy mudstone which is well exposed in steep ravines. Interfingering with this sequence are several layers of water-laid volcanic cinders and basalt cobbles.

Sedimentary Rock Notes

Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of continents. Sedimentary rocks are sediments that have been compacted and cemented to form solid rock bodies (lithified). The original sediments can be composed of: 1) Fragments of other rocks and minerals, such as gravel from a river, sand from a beach (or desert), mud from a deep ocean.

About the Allentown Formation

The Allentown Formation is a dolostone [CaMg(CO3)2] originally deposited as a limy mud and sand in warm, shallow seas that once covered all of the eastern …

4 Common Limestone Problems and How to Avoid Them

 · 4 Limestone Problems that You Might Come Across and How to Avoid Them. Weathering: Limestone is a rock which is more prone to especially chemical weathering than other types of rocks such as granite. This is because calcium carbonate, which is one of the minerals found in limestone, readily reacts with rainwater.

Micrite limestone

 · Micrite = lime mud; CaCO 3, the mineral calcite. Micrite is the equivalent of clay (rock = shale) in clastics. Originally deposited as microscopic aragonite needles, but now converted to calcite and then calcite cemented to form the rock. See Origin of Micrite for more details.